First question someone will probably ask you is what type of fishing are you planning to do.
This list could get long but a PFD is #1! Then a good paddle, comfortable seat, anchor, and a whistle.
From a safety stand point, always pre-plan your trip and share it with someone if fishing alone! Keep your cellphone in a waterproof bag or box!
Lots of folks have some type of crate complete with rod holders to store extra tackle trays and other essentials. Long nose pliers, Boga grip or fish grip, length measuring device of choice, and a landing net. Some carry a floating bait bucket and a small cast net to gather fresh bait when possible.
Check out "Professor Salt - Glenn Madden" on YouTube. He has some good videos with helpful info and this will lead you to other videos and sites for more help. I try to keep it simple depending on what I'm fishing for and where I'm at.
I have heard that a 4:1 ratio should be your minimum and a 10:1 is the best. So with that said...it would need to be at the least 4 times the length of the maximum depth to ensure the flukes dig in. You will need to do the math on where you plan to fish. It does take some rope to hold, especially in a slight current. I have two anchors and they are both set up different. One has a chain attached to the top of it which causes it to lay down and dig in.
Funny you asked about PFD's cause I'm looking for a new one myself. You will want one that is made for paddling to allow better movement around your arms and shoulders and will not ride up while sitting. I was looking at the Ascend Paddling Fishing Life Jacket from BPS. I have some cards that I need to spend from Christmas. Any feedback on that one before I commit would be well appreciated!
"rwh" gave some good advice when he mentioned a vhf radio and a paddle leash. I have thought about getting a radio myself. The paddle leash is a MUST have in my opinion. I have read where guys lost their paddles while fighting a fish and I understand how it can happen. I have knocked mine loose and off the yak before but luckily it was leashed! Either way it was not a good feeling. Everything on my yak is leashed or clipped on somehow. Everything except me of course!
I bought 2 of the Ascend PFDs from BPS for my kids and they are bulky and uncomfortable. I highly recommend the NRS Chinook PFD. I bought mine 3 years ago and it has held up great. It is very comfortable and has plenty of pockets for all the stuff I "need" to carry. Four of them have zippers, so that's where I keep my keys and a watertight container for my license, ID, etc. They are very popular and highly rated PFDs. Appomattox River Company in Hampton probably has them in stock that you could try on.
In addition to ReelDeal's comments: I would recommend using parachute cordage for your anchor line. You can use a lot of line with minimal bulk, it is very strong, and best bang for the buck! Most people start with a grapple anchor. I have a wedge purchased at West Marine for $15.
One thing you will need also is a waterproof whistle or any audible signaling device. You can keep this on your PFD. Also get a mirror. This can be used for distress signal also. A small plastic one to put in your pocket on your PFD is nice.
Once you have acquired all your essentials, get your kayak in the water and go out! But only go out 1 foot deeper than you are tall. Why? Because you will be at the safest depth to practice self rescue. Flip you and your kayak and practice getting back in.
I can't tell you how many times I have seen people fall out and not knowing how to get back in. So practice in shallow water where you have to wade. This will help you greatly.
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